Gupta Period (319 AD - 540 AD)
Gupta Period - Golden Era of Indian History
- Mehrauli Pillar Edict → Related to Chandragupta II
- Pune Copper Edict → Written by Prabha-Vati (D/O Chandragupta II)
- Junagarh Inscription → Skandgu
- Allahabad Pillar Edict → Samundragupta
- Eran Inscription → Bhanugupta
- Bilsad Inscription → Kumar Gupta
- Inner Cave Inscription → Skandgupta
- 1st Temple of India → Dashavator Temple in Deogarh, Jhansi.
- Ajanta & Elora caves → Aurangabad, Maharastra ( Cave no. 16,17 & 19 built-in Gupta period).
- Kumar Sambhavam
2. Vishakha Dutta
- Niti Shastra
- Surya Siddhanta
8. Amar Singh
10. Vishnu Sharma
⇒According to these sources, Sri Gupta is considered as the founder of the Gupta Dynasty.
1. Sri Gupta (Maharaja) [240 AD - 280 AD]
- Succeeded by his son Ghatotkacha & he also took the title of Maharaja.
⇒The actual founder of the Gupta dynasty – Chandragupta I.
2. Chandragupta I (319 AD - 335 AD]
He started Gupta Samvat.
He took the title of Maharajadhiraj.
Wife – Kumar Devi (Licchavi Princess)
First Gupta ruler to issue silver coin.
Succeeded by his son Samudragupta.
3. Samudragupta (335 AD - 375 AD]
Napoleon of India – Vincent Arthur Smith(Irish Indologist and Art Historian) gave him the title.
He Defeated 12 ruler in South India – Dakshinapath
And, 9 ruler in North India – Uttarapath.
He also became a Chakravartin Samrath.
He took the title of Vikramanka.
Organised an Ashwamedha Yajna.
His poet Harishena (book- Prayag Prashashti), was appointed to describe his victoria in Allahabad Pillar Edicts.
Samudragupta was a poet & he also took the title of Kaviraj.
He was also a Vienna player & he issued Vienna playing type coins.
He gave conservation to Buddhism because there was a Buddhist Monk in his court named Vasubandhu.
2 sons – Ramgupta & Chandragupta.
4. Ramgupta (375 AD - 380 AD]
- Eran Inscription
- Devi Chandraguptam
5. Chandragupta II (375 AD - 380 AD]
- The greatest ruler of this dynasty.
- 1st ruler who had 9 gems in his court.
- 9 Navratanas of Chandragupta:
- Amar Singh (Great Sanskrit Lexicographer)
- Dhanvantri (Great Physician)
- Harishena (Great Poet)
- Kalidas (Also a great poet & play writer)
- Kshapanaka (Great Astrologer)
- Shanku (Great Architect)
- Baital Bhatta (Great Magician)
- Varahmihir (Great Astronomer)
- Varruchi (Great Sanskrit Scholar)
- He killed Rudrasena III, Who was the last ruler of the Saka dynasty. After that, he took the title of Vikramaditya.
- In 399 AD, a famous Chinese traveler Fahiyan arrived in India & he stayed here for 15 years.
- Maximum development has happened in his ruling period.
- He took the title of Parambhagvat.
6. Kumargupta II (413 AD - 454 AD]
- In 413, He founded Nalanda University. which is considered as oldest university of present India. Famous for Buddhist education and this is also known as Oxford of Mahayana Bodh.
- He took the title of Mahindraditya. In the Gupta period, he had maximum no. of inscription.
- He was succeeded by his son Skandgupta.
7. Skandgupta II (454 AD - 467 AD]
- He was considered as last greatest ruler of this dynasty.
- He conducted 2nd renovation of Sudarshan Lake on Girnar Hills. And he appointed Chakrapalit(son of Parnadatta→ Governor of Gujrat) for that.
- I attack of Huna( Foreign Invaders & Ruler- Torman) rulers happened in his ruling period.
- He defeated Torman → written in Ahole( Written by – Pulakeshin II→Ruler of Chalukyas dynasty) inscription (Sanskrit).
Harshvardhan (606 AD - 647 AD]
- Last Hindu ruler of India.
- Dynasty – Pushyabhuti dynasty ( Vardhan Dynasty
- Capital – Thaneshwar (Haryana)
- II Capital – Kannauj, U.P.
- Father – Prabhakarvardhan
- Mother – Yashomati
- Elder brother – Rajyavardhan
- Sister – Rajyashiri
- In 605 AD, Rajyavardhan became ruler after his father and contemporary, the ruler of Malwa Devgupta and the ruler of Bengal was Shashank. A dynasty in Kannauy Maukari dynasty whose ruler was Grihavarman and his wife was Rajyashri. Shashank wants to marry Rajyashri. Shashank & Devgupta attacked Kannauj and killed Grihavarman. After that Rajyavardhan died by Shashank. The next ruler to sit on the throne was Harshvardhan in 606 AD.
- Harshvardhan killed Shashank and took her Sister from him and made Kannauj his capital.
- Harshvardhan court Peot →Banabhatta -Books – Harshacharit
- Harshvardhan’s book
629 AD to 645 AD ( 16years)
A Chinese traveler – Hiuen Tsang arrived in India and Stayed here for 16 years . He got Buddhist education from Nalanda University & he wrote a famous book – Si Yu Ki. During his travel to India, he also visited Lakhpat (Gujarat) and Kanchi/Kanchipuram (South India).
- Harsha died in 647 AD after ruling for 41 years.
- Since he died without any heirs, his empire disintegrated very soon after his death.
- He died by Pulakeshin II
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